About 4,000 adults ages 20-70 were followed for 6 years. Pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes rates were lower in those who consumed coffee vs. non-consumers. Risk reduction on average was 30%. Nutritional benefits of coffee on insulin resistance are mounting, as shown in this article.
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Here, we examined the potential effect of coffee consumption and total caffeine intake on the occurrence of pre-diabetes and T2D, in a population with low coffee consumption.
Adults men and women, aged 20–70 years, were followed for a median of 5.8 years. Dietary intakes of coffee and caffeine were estimated using a 168-food items validate semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, at baseline.
Cox proportional hazards regression models, adjusted for potential cofounders, were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between coffee and caffeine intakes and incidence of pre-diabetes and T2D.
The total population was 1,878 adults (844 men, 1034 women) and 2,139 adults (971 men, 1168 women) for analysis of pre-diabetes and T2D, respectively.
During the follow-up period the incidence of pre-diabetes and T2D was 30.8% and 6.6%, respectively.
- 43% of our subjects were no coffee drinker whereas
- 51.4% consumed 1 cup of coffee/week and
- 6.0% consumed more than 1 cup of coffee/week.
A lower risk of pre-diabetes (HR = 0.73, p<0.05) and T2D (HR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.44–1.00) was observed in coffee drinkers compared to non-drinkers, in the fully adjusted models.
Higher dietary intake of caffeine (≥152 vs. <65 mg/d) was accompanied with a borderline (P = 0.053) reduced risk of pre-diabetes (HR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.19–1.00).
Our findings indicated that coffee drinking may have favorable effect in prevention of pre-diabetes and T2D.